Our Forensic Biology laboratoryhandles all types of forensic services or cases which are concerned with thedetection as well as analysis or examination of the biological fluids such assemen, blood, urine, saliva etc often retrieved from a crime scene or involvingcommencement of a crime. Forensic Biology division of our laboratory worksmainly on the chemistry and biology fundamentals, to the legal or forensic investigations.
In general, the biology division ofour laboratory deals with cases of identification of species origin, bloodgroup analysis, DNA extraction from the blood pool, tissues or dried bloodstains retrieved from the scene of crime. This analysis and identification operationhelps to clasp the offender or perpetrator as well as helps in acquittal of theinnocent. The existence of vaginal or seminal secretion or fluid at a crimescene indicates a recent sexual assault such as rape, which was performed withor without the consent of the innocent. In the same way, the existence of anybiological fluid such as blood and tissue indicates the potential of violenceor struggle at the scene of crime. All the biological evidences are analyzed byperforming accurate and thorough observations in addition to systematicexamination of the retrieved biological samples, under the accurate and optimumconditions, to determine precise results.
The major tasks performed by our lab’s biology division are identifyingand ascertaining the presence of semen and blood in the retrieved evidence,blood group identification from dried blood sample extracted from the evidenceas well as from fresh blood, DNA extraction from biological evidences such assemen, hair and blood, extracted DNA comparison to that of the suspect oraccused, analysis of fibre, identification of origin of species etc.
Our chief priority is the proper collection and preservationof the samples extracted from the evidences which plays an essential role inthe accurate and precise examination of the samples.
Our well-qualified and experienced experts work for thecompletion of the tasks with utmost dedication. With their expertise, followingstandard protocols, our experts analyse cases carefully and provide theirunbiased opinion and forensic report.
We considerbiological evidence as one of the crucial in establishing personal identity andfacts. Hence, utmost significance is given to proper collection andpreservation process of these evidences by our expert during on scene visit. Ifthe evidence is received from law enforcement body first step becomesestablishing type of body fluid or kind of biological evidence, which isfurther followed by series of systematic examination process.
Our expert arevigilant about integrity of evidence and handle each of these evidence verycarefully, be it semen, saliva or hair strand. In fact we have process ofreceive cases so smooth that private clients too can proceed without anyhassle.
The mainobjective of our lab is to provide assistance to law enforcement agency andhelp our private clients as well in finding out the truth. To accomplish thiswe use best of methods and chemicals, also each and every standard and protocolis followed by our team of experts.
DETERMININGTHE PRESENCE OF BLOOD - It deals with the identification, examination and analysisof presence of blood in the provided exhibit or an evidence retrieved from thescene of crime. Various chemical tests are performed by the experts foranalysing the presence of blood. The experts examine blood, which aids inidentification of the victim as well as supports criminal investigations.
DETERMININGTHE PRESENCE OF SEMEN - It deals with the identification and analysis of presence ofsemen in the provided exhibit or evidences retrieved from the crime scene.Various presumptive and confirmatory tests are performed by the experts fordetermining the presence of semen. The existenceof seminal fluid at a crime scene indicates a recent sexual assault such asrape, performed without the consent of the victim.
EXTRACTIONOF DNA FROM BLOOD, SEMEN AND HAIR - It is performed to extract DNA fromthe biological samples such as semen, hair and blood to identify the offenderor perpetrator. The extraction of DNA from the semen sample helps to find outthe accused or offender in case of rape or sexual assaults. DNA extraction isalso performed in cases of paternity disputes. DNA reports plays a major rolein individualization of the victim or the accused and is most accurate andappropriate than any other test.
COMPARINGOF EXTRACTED DNA TO THAT OF SUSPECT-
The DNA extracted from the biological sample such as blood,semen and hair are compared with the DNA of the perpetrator in order to ensurethat the assault or offence is committed by the accused. It is also compared incases of paternity disputes.
DETERMINATIONOF BLOOD GROUP FROM FRESH AS WELL AS DRIED BLOOD-
Blood group is determined by performing blood groupidentification tests which identifies the blood group of the exhibit. The bloodgroup identification is determined from the dried blood extracted from theevidence retrieved from a crime scene, as well as from fresh blood of suspects,in order to determine their presence at the crime scene. The determination ofblood group is performed in cases of road accidents, and other crimes as bloodis an easily available evidence in most crimes.
SPECIESIDENTIFICATION - It deals with the identification of species, whether itbelongs to either of the two kingdoms, i.e. Plantae or Animalia. Significantsupporting evidence are provided by forensic botany and zoology experts for thecriminal investigations. It deals with the identification and examination ofthe suspected illegal plants, weeds, tree bark, insects and various other biologicalevidences. A major use of this is in determination of wood, in case of accidentwith the tree. It is performed by identifying and differentiating distinctspecies by its traditional morphological features.
FIBREANALYSIS -It is performed for identifying and analysingtype of fibre procured from the evidence for the purpose of criminalinvestigation or to link the perpetrator to the crime scene. It can provideclues about the person at the crime scene.The physical properties ofthe fibre exhibit are determined in order to identify and compare a suspectedfibre exhibit with the known exhibit. It can be collected from the scene ofcrime and preserved by using tweezers, by tape lifting etc.
MISCELLANEOUS – We provide other miscellaneous services like component determinationfrom any compound, bite marks analysis, post-mortem report analysis, lip printsanalysis, etc.
BLOOD GROUPTESTING KIT - Blood typing kit comprises of Anti- A, Anti-B, and Anti-D serums,which are used to determine the blood group from an exhibit. The procedureis mainly based on the principle of agglutination in which, the typing antigenpresent on the red cells agglutinates in the existence of the corresponding antibodypresent in the reagent shows the tested antigen’s presence.
CENTRIFUGEMACHINE - A centrifuge machineis a laboratory equipment used in thebiology lab to segregate and concentrate material present in the liquid medium.The main principle of the working of centrifuge machine is based on thesedimentation, in which the heavier/denser particles settle down in centrifugetube as pellet and lighter particles float upwards as supernatant.
ULTRA -VIOLET FLUORESCENCE CABINET - Ultra violet fluorescence cabinet isused as a germicidal lamp which is employed for the purpose of decontaminationof the work surfaces inside a cabinet as it helps in killing various microorganisms.It is also used to observe the stains of biological samples such as blood,semen etc.
ANALYTICALBALANCE - The analytical balance is an important instrument in a biologyand chemistry laboratory. This highly accurate equipment has the ability tomeasure small mass even in the sub-milligram range. The uses ofanalytical balance is to weigh chemical substances, exhibits and also employedto weigh insects or animals, and even centrifuge tubes in the experiments ofultracentrifugation.
MICROSCOPE – A microscope isan instrument used to observe the small specimen or sample in detail. It mainlyworks by using resolution and magnification. They are mainly helpful in the biology to study small organisms, observehair sample, agglutination in the blood grouping and also helpful in speciesidentification.
HOT AIROVEN - Hot air oven is an electrical device widely employed inthe biology and microbiology labs for the sterilization and decontamination of thematerial and equipments used in the lab. The working principle of this deviceis to sterilize the products by providing dry heat treatment which is achievedby conduction.
INCUBATOR – Incubatoris an electric equipment which is usedmainly in the biology, microbiology and chemistry labs. It is employed forgiving heat treatment to the samples, for drying, heating of samples at certaintemperature in order to activate the enzymes and substances present in them.