Our Forensic Biology laboratory handles all types of forensic services or cases that are concerned with the detection as well as analysis or examination of the biological fluids such as semen, blood, urine, saliva, etc often retrieved from a crime scene or involving commencement of a crime. The forensic Biology division of our laboratory works mainly on the chemistry and biology fundamentals, of legal or forensic investigations.
In general, the biology division of our laboratory deals with cases of identification of species origin, blood group analysis, DNA extraction from the blood pool, tissues, or dried blood stains retrieved from the scene of the crime. This analysis and identification operation helps to clasp the offender or perpetrator as well as helps in the acquittal of the innocent. The existence of vaginal or seminal secretion or fluid at a crime scene indicates a recent sexual assault such as rape, which was performed with or without the consent of the innocent. In the same way, the existence of any biological fluid such as blood and tissue indicates the potential of violence or struggle at the scene of the crime. All the biological evidence is analyzed by performing accurate and thorough observations in addition to a systematic examination of the retrieved biological samples, under accurate and optimum conditions, to determine precise results.
The major tasks performed by our lab’s biology division are identifying and ascertaining the presence of semen and blood in the retrieved evidence, blood group identification from dried blood samples extracted from the evidence as well as from fresh blood, DNA extraction from biological evidence such as semen, hair, and blood, extracted DNA comparison to that of the suspect or accused, analysis of fiber, identification of the origin of species, etc.
Our chief priority is the proper collection and preservation of the samples extracted from the evidence which plays an essential role in the accurate and precise examination of the samples.
Our well-qualified and experienced experts work for the completion of the tasks with utmost dedication. With their expertise, following standard protocols, our experts analyze cases carefully and provide their unbiased opinion and forensic report.
We consider biological evidence as one of the crucial in establishing personal identity and facts. Hence, utmost significance is given to the proper collection and preservation process of this evidence by our expert during the on-scene visit. If the evidence is received from the law enforcement body first step becomes establishing the type of body fluid or kind of biological evidence, which is further followed by a series of the systematic examination process.
Our experts are vigilant about the integrity of evidence and handle each of these pieces of evidence very carefully, be it semen, saliva, or hair strand. In fact, we have a process of receiving cases so smooth that private clients too can proceed without any hassle.
The main objective of our lab is to provide assistance to law enforcement agencies and help our private clients as well in finding out the truth. To accomplish this we use the best of methods and chemicals, also each and every standard and protocol is followed by our team of experts.
DETERMINING THE PRESENCE OF BLOOD - It deals with the identification, examination and analysis of presence of blood in the provided exhibit or an evidence retrieved from the scene of crime. Various chemical tests are performed by the experts for analysing the presence of blood. The experts examine blood, which aids in identification of the victim as well as supports criminal investigations.
DETERMINING THE PRESENCE OF SEMEN - It deals with the identification and analysis of presence of semen in the provided exhibit or evidences retrieved from the crime scene. Various presumptive and confirmatory tests are performed by the experts for determining the presence of semen. The existence of seminal fluid at a crime scene indicates a recent sexual assault such as rape, performed without the consent of the victim.
EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM BLOOD, SEMEN AND HAIR - It is performed to extract DNA from the biological samples such as semen, hair and blood to identify the offender or perpetrator. The extraction of DNA from the semen sample helps to find out the accused or offender in case of rape or sexual assaults. DNA extraction is also performed in cases of paternity disputes. DNA reports plays a major role in individualization of the victim or the accused and is most accurate and appropriate than any other test.
COMPARING OF EXTRACTED DNA TO THAT OF SUSPECT-
The DNA extracted from the biological sample such as blood, semen and hair are compared with the DNA of the perpetrator in order to ensure that the assault or offence is committed by the accused. It is also compared in cases of paternity disputes.
DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP FROM FRESH AS WELL AS DRIED BLOOD-
Blood group is determined by performing blood group identification tests which identifies the blood group of the exhibit. The blood group identification is determined from the dried blood extracted from the evidence retrieved from a crime scene, as well as from fresh blood of suspects, in order to determine their presence at the crime scene. The determination of blood group is performed in cases of road accidents, and other crimes as blood is an easily available evidence in most crimes.
SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - It deals with the identification of species, whether it belongs to either of the two kingdoms, i.e. Plantae or Animalia. Significant supporting evidence are provided by forensic botany and zoology experts for the criminal investigations. It deals with the identification and examination of the suspected illegal plants, weeds, tree bark, insects and various other biological evidences. A major use of this is in determination of wood, in case of accident with the tree. It is performed by identifying and differentiating distinct species by its traditional morphological features.
FIBRE ANALYSIS - It is performed for identifying and analysing type of fibre procured from the evidence for the purpose of criminal investigation or to link the perpetrator to the crime scene. It can provide clues about the person at the crime scene. The physical properties of the fibre exhibit are determined in order to identify and compare a suspected fibre exhibit with the known exhibit. It can be collected from the scene of crime and preserved by using tweezers, by tape lifting etc.
MISCELLANEOUS – We provide other miscellaneous services like component determination from any compound, bite marks analysis, post-mortem report analysis, lip prints analysis, etc.
BLOOD GROUP TESTING KIT - The blood typing kit comprises Anti-A- A, Anti-B, and Anti-D serums, which are used to determine the blood group from an exhibit. The procedure is mainly based on the principle of agglutination in which, the typing antigen present on the red cells agglutinates in the existence of the corresponding antibody present in the reagent shows the tested antigen’s presence.
CENTRIFUGE MACHINE - A centrifuge machine is laboratory equipment used in the biology lab to segregate and concentrate material present in the liquid medium. The main principle of the working of centrifuge machine is based on the sedimentation, in which the heavier/denser particles settle down in centrifuge tube as pellet and lighter particles float upwards as supernatant.
ULTRAVIOLET FLUORESCENCE CABINET - Ultraviolet fluorescence cabinet is used as a germicidal lamp which is employed for the purpose of decontamination of the work surfaces inside a cabinet as it helps in killing various microorganisms. It is also used to observe the stains of biological samples such as blood, semen, etc.
ANALYTICAL BALANCE - The analytical balance is an important instrument in a biology and chemistry laboratory. This highly accurate equipment has the ability to measure small mass even in the sub-milligram range. The uses of analytical balance is to weigh chemical substances, exhibits and also employed to weigh insects or animals, and even centrifuge tubes in the experiments of ultracentrifugation.
MICROSCOPE – A microscope is an instrument used to observe a small specimen or sample in detail. It mainly works by using resolution and magnification. They are mainly helpful in biology to study small organisms, observe hair samples, agglutination in the blood grouping, and also helpful in species identification.
HOT AIR OVEN - Hot air oven is an electrical device widely employed in the biology and microbiology labs for the sterilization and decontamination of the material and equipment used in the lab. The working principle of this device is to sterilize the products by providing dry heat treatment which is achieved by conduction.
INCUBATOR – Incubator is electric equipment that is used mainly in the biology, microbiology, and chemistry labs. It is employed for giving heat treatment to the samples, for drying, heating of samples at a certain temperature in order to activate the enzymes and substances present in them.